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Saturday, July 31, 2010

Active duty for special work

A tour of active duty for reserve personnel authorized from military and reserve personnel appropriations for  work on active or reserve component programs. This includes annual screening, training camp operations, training ship operations, and unit conversion to new weapon systems when such duties are essential.  Active duty for special work may also be authorized to support study groups, training sites and exercises, short-term  projects, and doing administrative or support functions.  By policy, active duty for special work tours are normally limited to 179 days or less in one fiscal year.  Tours exceeding 180 days are accountable against active duty end strength.

Active duty

Full-time duty in the active military service of the United States.  This includes members of the Reserve Components serving on active duty or full-time training duty, but does not include full-time National Guard duty.

Active defense

The employment of limited offensive action and counterattacks to deny a contested area or position to the enemy

Active air defense

Direct defensive action taken to destroy, nullify, or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air and missile threats against friendly forces and assets. It includes the use of aircraft, air defense weapons, electronic warfare, and  other available weapons.

Activation detector

A device used to determine neutron flux or density by virtue of the radioactivity induced in it as a result of neutron capture.

Activation

Order to active duty (other than for training) in the Federal service.

Action phase

In an amphibious operation, the period of time between the arrival of the landing forces of the amphibious force in the operational area and the accomplishment of their mission.

Action deferred

Tactical action on a specific track is being withheld for better tactical advantage.  Weapons are available and commitment is pending.

Action agent

In intelligence usage, one who has access to, and performs actions against, the target.

Acquisition and cross-servicing agreement

Agreements negotiated on a bilateral basis with US allies or coalition partners that allow US forces to  exchange most common types of support, including food, fuel, transportation, ammunition, and equipment.  Authority to negotiate these agreements is usually delegated to the combatant commander by the Secretary of
Defense.  Authority to execute these agreements lies with the Secretary of Defense, and may or may not be  delegated.
Governed by legal guidelines, these agreements are used for contingencies, peacekeeping operations,  unforeseen emergencies, or exercises to correct logistic deficiencies that cannot be adequately corrected by national means.  The support received or given is reimbursed under the conditions of the acquisition and cross- servicing agreement.

Acquire

1.  When applied to acquisition radars, the process of detecting the presence and location of a target in sufficient detail to permit identification. 
2.  When applied to tracking radars, the process of positioning a radar beam so that a target is in that beam to permit the effective employment of weapons.

Acoustic warfare

Action involving the use of underwater acoustic energy to determine, exploit, reduce, or prevent hostile use of  the underwater acoustic spectrum and actions which retain friendly use of the underwater acoustic spectrum. Also called AW.  
There are three divisions within acoustic warfare. 
1.   acoustic warfare support measures.  That aspect of acoustic warfare involving actions to search for,  intercept, locate, record, and analyze radiated acoustic energy in water for the purpose of exploiting such radiations.  The use of acoustic warfare support measures involves no intentional underwater acoustic  emission and is generally not detectable by the enemy.  Also called AWSM.  
2.   acoustic warfare countermeasures.  That aspect of acoustic warfare involving actions taken to prevent or reduce an enemy’s effective use of the underwater acoustic spectrum. Acoustic warfare countermeasures  involve intentional underwater acoustic emissions for deception and jamming.  Also called AWCM. 
3.  acoustic warfare counter-countermeasures.  That aspect of acoustic warfare involving actions taken to  ensure friendly effective use of the underwater acoustic spectrum despite the enemy’s use of underwater  acoustic warfare.  Acoustic warfare counter-countermeasures involve anti-acoustic warfare support measures  and anti-acoustic warfare countermeasures, and may not involve underwater acoustic emissions.  Also called AWCCM.

Acoustic minehunting

The use of a sonar to detect mines or mine-like objects which may be on or protruding from the seabed, or buried.

Acoustic mine

A mine with an acoustic circuit which responds to the acoustic field of a ship or sweep.

Acoustic jamming

The deliberate radiation or reradiation of mechanical or electroacoustic signals with the objectives of obliterating  or obscuring signals that the enemy is attempting to receive and of disrupting enemy weapons systems.

Acoustic intelligence

Intelligence derived from the collection and processing of acoustic phenomena. Also called ACINT.

Acoustic circuit

A mine circuit which responds to the acoustic field of a target.

Acoustical surveillance

Employment of electronic devices, including sound-recording, -receiving, or -transmitting equipment, for the collection of information.

Accuracy of fire

The precision of fire expressed by the closeness of a grouping of shots at and around the center of the target.

Accounting line designator

A five-character code, consisting of the target desired ground zero designator and the striking command suffix,  to indicate a specific nuclear strike by a specified weapon delivery system on a target objective to the operation  plan.  Also called ALD.

Friday, July 30, 2010

Accountability

The obligation imposed by law or lawful order or regulation on an officer or other person for keeping accurate record of property, documents, or funds. The person having this obligation may or may not have actual  possession of the property, documents, or funds.
Accountability is concerned primarily with records, while responsibility is concerned primarily with custody, care, and safekeeping. 

Accompanying supplies

Unit supplies that deploy with forces.

Accidental attack

An unintended attack which occurs without deliberate national design as a direct result of a random event, such as a mechanical failure, a simple human error, or an unauthorized action by a subordinate.

Access to classified information

The ability and opportunity to obtain knowledge of classified information.  Persons have access to classified  information if they are permitted to gain knowledge of the information or if they are in a place where they would  be expected to gain such knowledge.  Persons do not have access to classified information by being in a place where classified information is kept if security measures prevent them from gaining knowledge of the information.

Acceptability

Operation plan review criterion.  The determination as to whether the contemplated course of action is worth the cost in manpower,  materiel, and time involved; is consistent with the law of war; and is militarily and politically  supportable.

Absorbed dose

The amount of energy imparted by nuclear (or ionizing) radiation to unit mass of absorbing material.  The unit is the rad

Absolute height

The height of an aircraft directly above the surface or terrain over which it is flying.  See also altitude.

Absolute filter

A filter capable of cutting off 100% by weight of solid particles greater than a stated micron size

Absolute dud

A nuclear weapon which, when launched at or emplaced on a target, fails to explode.

Absolute altimeter

A type of altimeter which measures vertical distance to the surface below, using radio, radar, sonic, laser, or  capacitive technology.

Above-the-line publications

The upper level publications in the hierarchy of joint publications which includes capstone, keystone, and other  key joint doctrine publications that the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff signs and are intended to be used by combatant commanders, subunified commanders, joint task force commanders, Service Chiefs, and Joint Staff  directors.

Abort

1. To terminate a mission for any reason other than enemy action. It may occur at any point after the beginning of the mission and prior to its completion.
2. To discontinue aircraft takeoff or missile launch.